A Comparative Study of Maternal and Fetal Outcome in Obese and Non-Obese Pregnant Women
Objective: To compare maternal and fetal outcomes between obese and non-obese pregnant women.
Methodology: The case control study was conducted at Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Azad Jammu and Kashmir Medical College, Muzaffarabad from November 2018 to October 2019. Pregnant women visiting to the department for antenatal visit in the first trimester were enrolled for the study. The women who had BMI > 30 were included in the cases group and women with BMI 18.5-25 were included in the control healthy group. All the enrolled women were followed at least four times during the pregnancy period for assessment of antenatal and maternal complications till delivery.
Results: The mean age of obese cases was 28.67±3.30 years similar to 28.84±1.316 years of healthy controls. The rate of preeclampsia (30.9% vs. 14.5%), eclampsia (21.8% vs. 7.3%) and gestational diabetes (27.3% vs. 9.1%) were significantly (p-value < 0.05) higher in obese cases as compared to normal healthy women. Significantly (p-value < 0.05) higher rates of IUGR (14.5% vs. 3.6%), preterm delivery (29.1% vs. 12.7%) and cesarean section (43.6% vs. 16.4%) were observed in obese cases. The mean birth weight (2.691 ± 0.52 vs. 2.424 ± 0.212 kg, p-value < 0.05) was noted significantly greater in obese group.
Conclusion: Maternal outcome was significantly better in women who had a healthy weight as compared to obese women. Maternal obesity is significantly associated with poor pregnancy outcomes resulting in major complications for mother and fetus. A proper management plan can reduce the feto-maternal morbidity and mortality associated with maternal obesity.
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