A Comparative Study of Maternal and Fetal Outcome in Obese and Non-Obese Pregnant Women
Objective: To compare maternal and fetal outcomes between obese and non-obese pregnant women.
Study Design: Case control study
Place and Duration: The study was conducted at department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Azad Jammu And Kashmir Medical College, Muzaffarabad from February 2018 to January 2019.
Materials and Methods: Pregnant women visiting to the department for antenatal visit in the first trimester were enrolled for the study. The women who had BMI > 30 were included in the cases group and women with BMI 18.5-25 were included in the control healthy group. All the enrolled women were followed at least four times during the pregnancy period for assessment of antenatal and maternal complications during the pregnancy period till delivery. In maternal complication gestational diabetes, PIH, preeclampsia, eclampsia, PPH, preterm delivery and mode of delivery were noted, and for fetal outcome congenital anomalies based on anomaly scan, birth weight, APGAR score, NICU admission were recorded on a predesigned performa.
Results: The mean age of obese cases was 28.67 ± 3.30 years similar to 28.84 ± 1.316 years of healthy controls. The rate of preeclampsia (30.9% vs. 14.5%), eclampsia (21.8% vs. 7.3%) and gestational diabetes (27.3% vs. 9.1%) were significantly (p-value < 0.05) higher in obese cases as compared to normal healthy women. Significantly (p-value < 0.05) higher rates of IUGR (14.5% vs. 3.6%), preterm delivery (29.1% vs. 12.7%) and cesarean section (43.6% vs. 16.4%) were observed in obese cases. The mean birth weight (2.691 ± 0.52 vs. 2.424 ± 0.212 kg, p-value < 0.05) was noted significantly greater in obese group. There was significantly (p-value < 0.05) higher rate of low APGAR (< 7) score (36.4% vs. 12.7%) at 1 minute and (21.8% vs. 9.1%) after 5 minutes in obese group. The requirement of admission to NICU was also significantly (56.4% vs. 27.3%, p-value < 0.05) in obese women group.
Conclusion: Maternal outcome was significantly better in women who had healthy weight as compared to obese women. Maternal obesity is significantly associated with poor pregnancy outcome resulting in major complications for mother and fetus. Proper management plan can reduce the feto-maternal morbidity and mortality associated with maternal obesity.
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