Incidence of Depression: Prenatal to Postnatal
Objective: The main objective of the present study was to find out the difference between prenatal and postnatal scores on measures of Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and Postnatal Depression Predictors Inventory -Revised (PDPI-R) among mothers of Sub-District Kharian, Pakistan. Methodology: A prospective pre-posttest design was used to carry out the research. Initially, a purposive sample of 210 pregnant women in third trimester of pregnancy was taken. 92 women completed both prenatal and postnatal phases of the research that were finally included in further analyses. Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (Cox, 1987) translated in Urdu by Rahman, Iqbal, Lovel and Shah (2005) was used to screen women for prenatal and postnatal depression. Postnatal Depression Predictors Inventory-Revised (Beck, 2001) was translated into Urdu to assess low self-esteem, marital satisfaction, social support, planned pregnancy, depression, anxiety, history of depression and stressful life events. Procedure of data collection comprised of two steps. In step 1 the scales were administered to prenatal sample and in step 2 the same procedure was revised for postnatal sample. Repeated measure t-test was employed to find the difference of scores among variables. Results: Women were more depressed during prenatal period (M=10.35, SD= 4.88) as compared to postnatal period (M=8.9, SD=4.67), t (91) =3.07, p=0.003. The other findings showed that there was a difference in perceived stressful life events from prenatal (M=1.72, SD=1.45) to postnatal period (M=1.42, SD=1.42), t (91) =2.44, p=0.01. Conclusion: The results showed that there was a significant drop in depressive symptoms after delivery of the child. Moreover, Mothers during prenatal period perceived life events as more stressful as compared to during postnatal period.