Status of Vitamin D Deficiency in Pregnant Women and Their Infants in Rural Areas of Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan

  • Neel Kanth
  • Sejal Neel Medical Officer, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro
  • Mehreen Yousaf Rana Assistant Professor, Gynae and OBS Department, Ziauddin Hospital, Karachi
  • Mukesh Kumar Professor, Pathology in Muhterma Shaheed Benazeer Bhutto Medical College Lyari Karachi
  • Damni Advani Undergraduate, SMBBMC Lyari, Karachi
Keywords: Vitamin D3, Deficiency, Insufficiency


Objective: To determine the vitamin D3 deficiency among pregnant women and its correlation with neonatal vitamin D level in rural areas of Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.

Methodology: This cross-sectional study was conducted over 18 months from July 2017 to December 2018. Two hundred serum samples including the mother and their newborn were equally collected at the time of natural delivery or C-section and were sent immediately to Hospital diagnostic laboratory for the vitamin D level. All the information was collected via study proforma. Data analysis was done by SPSS version 20.

Results: A total of 84 women were studied, their mean age was 25.34+23.11 years. Vitamin D3 deficiency and insufficiency in pregnant women were found to be 9.5% and 55.9% respectively, while 34.5% of the women had normal Vitamin D3 levels. Among newborns, vitamin D3 deficiency and insufficiency were found to be 11.9% and 53.5%. As per effect modifiers, vitamin D level was non-significant, p-values were quite insignificant. There was a significant positive correlation between maternal and fetal vitamin D level r-value 6.06 (p=0.001).

Conclusion: Maternal vitamin D3 deficiency and insufficiency was highly prevalent, found to be 9.5% and 55.9%. Maternal vitamin D deficiency proved a significant caused of infant vitamin D deficiency as there was a strong positive correlation. 

Original Articles