Socio-Economic Determinants Of Age At Menopause
Objective:To assess age at menopause and its association with socioeconomic determinants across the lifecycle.
Methodology: In this cross-sectional study, two hundred and one post menopausal women were interviewed using pre-designed questionnaires from July, 2016 to October, 2016 at MCH Centre, PIMS, and Islamabad. Patients who had history of hysterectomy or oophorectomy were excluded. Main outcome measure was age at menopause and secondary outcome measure was correlation between socioeconomic status and age at menopause. Socioeconomic status was defined using indicators including education, monthly income, father and spouse occupation, frequency of meat intake etc.
Results: Among 201 women the mean age at menopause was 47.96 ±4.15 years. The factors as a child found to be significantly associated with early or premature menopause were father occupation of laborer, family size > 10 persons (p value <0.001) and less meat intake (p value <0.001). As an adult, rural residence (p value <0.001), family size >10 persons, less meat intake (p value <0.001) and monthly income < 30,000, which are all indicators of poor socioeconomic status, were significantly associated with early or premature menopause. However family history of early and premature menopause was not significant associations.
Conclusion: Poor socioeconomic status in childhood as well adulthood is associated with early age at menopause.
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