Spectrum of Electrolytes in Pre-eclampsia; A Case Controlled Study

  • Muhammad Irfan Khattak Consultant Nephrologist, PNS Shifa Karachi
  • Samina Naseem Khattak Associate Professor Obs & Gynae, PNS Shifa, Karachi
  • Umairah Yaqub Associate Professor Obs & Gynae,Department of Obs & Gynae, MH Rawalpindi
  • Ayesha Imran Head of Dept Obs & Gynae, CMH Kharian
  • Khawar Kamal Medical Administrator CMH Kharian Medical College
  • Jawairiah Liaqat Assistant Professor, Dept of Obs and Gynae, Islam Medical College Sialkot
Keywords: Calcium, Magnesium, Potassium


Objective: To evaluate association of various electrolyte abnormalities with preeclampsia.

Methodology: This was a case control study carried out at CMH Kharian from 1st January till 1st Oct 2020 in which the study population was divided in three groups. Group I- Preeclamptic women, Group II- Normotensive Pregnant women and Group-III, Normal healthy non pregnant controls. Serum magnesium, sodium and potassium were compared among the groups. Participants' ages, parity, weight, and height were recorded on a data collection form following informed consent. Blood pressure readings were taken manually during the first and third trimesters of pregnancy using a sphygmomanometer (Mercury siu China) and a stethoscope. The measurements were taken on the left arm of patients who were seated. At least two measurements were taken and averaged for each patient at a 15-minute interval. One-way ANOVA statistics were applied to find the significance of variations in three groups.

Results: Mean serum sodium was 139±4.429) in preeclampsia group, significantly higher than Normotensive pregnant females 131.65 ± 4.429) and non-pregnant normotensive patients 132 mEq/L (± 3. 654). On the contrary, Serum Potassium was significantly low in the Preeclampsia group 3.6±0.54 when compared to other groups. Similarly low mean concentration of Magnesium 0.918mmol/l   (± 0.193) were observed in Preeclampsia group.

Conclusion: The study shows low levels of serum calcium, magnesium, potassium, and increased level of sodium in Preeclampsia in Pakistani patients.

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