Factors Influencing Early Essential Newborn Care and Effect on Early Initiation of Breast Feeding

  • Noreen Rasul Assistant professor of obstetrics and gynecology at Pak Red Crescent Medical and Dental College
  • Nadia Khurshid Professor of obstetrics and gynecology at Aleem Medical College/ Gulab Devi teaching Hospital
  • Maria Ashfaq Assistant professor of obstetrics and gynecology, The University of Lahore
  • Arzoo Rahim Medical students, KEMU Lahore
  • Moeez Munawar 5Medical students, KEMU Lahore
Keywords: Early Essential Newborn Care


Objective: To assess the factors that influence the practice of early essential newborn care after birth and how much it increases early initiation of breast feeding.

Methodology: It was a retrospective study conducted in Services Hospital Lahore in the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology from 1 August 2016 to 31 December 2021. Total deliveries conducted were 30714. Early essential newborn care was conducted that included immediate drying after birth within 30 seconds of birth, skin to skin contact for at least one-hour, delayed cord clamping 1-3 minutes and early initiation of breast feeding within an hour of birth. EENC was done only on stable babies. Self-made proforma was used for the data collection and SPSS 26 version was used for analysis of data.

Results: Total number of deliveries from were 30714. Out of them 18231 were spontaneous vaginal deliveries and caesarean section were 3696. Early essential newborn care was carried out in 18452(60%) cases. In 41225(78%) cases in which EENC was done, breast feeding was started early after birth and was continued. In the factors helping EENC, in 17900(97%) cases doctors and nurses were trained.  In 18452(100%), drugs and equipment were present and 10810(58.5%) patient were educated and were counselled for the significance of EENC. In cases where EENC was not done, main cause was COVID-19 in 2020 and 2021 where in 5321(43.6%) patients due to shortage of staff and social distancing EENC was not carried out.

Conclusion: Early Essential Newborn Care policies, environmental interventions, early initiation of breast feeding and training of health care personnel can reduce neonatal mortality by preventing hypothermia, sepsis and asphyxia.

Key words: EENC – Early Essential Newborn Care, NICU – neonatal intensive care unit, SVD- spontaneous vaginal delivery

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