Serum Interleukin-4 and Interleukin-10 Levels as Biomarkers in the Early onset Pre-eclampsia

Keywords: Pre-eclampsia, interleukin-4, normotensive pregnancy, interleukin-10


Objective: To explore the association of IL-4 and IL-10 levels as biomarkers with EOP.

Methodology: It was a case-control study was conducted in King Edward Medical University (KEMU), Lahore from May 2020 to May 2021. Fifty five diagnosed patients with early onset pre-eclampsia as cases, and 56 normotensive pregnant controls were taken from Lady Atchison Hospital, Lahore. While, 32 non-pregnant controls from general population were enrolled in the study. Blood was collected from the subjects, and serum levels of IL-4 and IL-10 were determined by sandwich ELISA assay in the advanced research lab of biomedical sciences, KEMU, Lahore. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 26.0. The chi-square test was used to examine the association between categorical variables. To ascertain the discriminative abilities of interleukin-4 and interleukin-10, a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed. A p value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: Women with EOP had a positive previous history of pre-eclampsia (p<.001). Significantly higher serum IL-4 levels were present in non-pregnant controls, followed by EOP and pregnant controls (p<.001). IL-10 levels were significantly lower in EOP and in pregnant controls as compared to non-pregnant controls (p<.001). IL-4 at a cut-off value of >11.6 (AUC=0.902, p<.001) had 87.27% sensitivity and 92.86% specificity to differentiate the patients with EOP from normotensive pregnant females.

Conclusion: Levels of serum IL-4 but not of IL-10 can be used as an independent biomarker to differentiate between early onset pre-eclampsia and normotensive pregnancy.

Original Articles