Association of Neonatal Outcome with Maternal Thyroid Dysfunction

  • Juwayria Omar Associate Professor Community Medicine, Fazaia Medical College Islamabad
  • Maliha Akhtar Qureshi Consultant Paediatrician KRL Hospital Islamabad
  • Hameed Mumtaz Durrani Assistant Professor, Shifa College of Medicine, Islamabad
  • Nosheena Shabbir 4Associate Professor, Consultant Gynecologist, SKBZ CMH Muzaffarabad
  • Jawairiah Liaqat Assistant Professor, Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Islam Medical College, Sialkot.


Objective: To explore the association of neonatal and maternal outcome with maternal thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy.

Methodology: This case control study was conducted in the department of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Pediatrics, Fazaia Medical College, Islamabad, from January 2022 to December 2023. The study sample consisted of all pregnant women between the ages of 18 and 40, regardless of gestational age, who were carrying singletons. A detailed history was taken, and then an obstetric and general physical examination were conducted. 5–10 ml of the venous blood were first drawn while fasting and their TSH levels were measured for the biochemical parameters. Their free T3 and T4 levels were examined if their serum TSH levels were elevated. Following diagnosis, the patient received appropriate thyroxine treatment for hypothyroidism. Every patient in the research sample had their labour induced at 37 weeks or later. The outcomes for mothers and fetuses were also mentioned.  

Results: The mean age of females was noted 26.45 ± 4.62 years in cases group and 27.81 ± 4.93 years in control group. The rate of caesarean section deliveries (66.22% vs 37.85%) was significantly (P-value < 0.05) higher among females having thyroid dysfunction. Overall maternal complications had significant (P-value < 0.05) relationship with thyroid dysfunction status. The rate of low birth weight (51.35% vs. 32.43%) was significantly higher among neonates of women having thyroid dysfunction. The overall neonatal complications rate was also observed to be significantly (P-value < 0.05) higher among neonates belonged to females having thyroid dysfunction (41.89% vs. 20.27%) as compared to females without thyroid dysfunction.

Conclusions: The increased incidence of caesarean sections, preeclampsia, anaemia, low birth weight, low APGAR score, respiratory distress, neonatal jaundice, and sepsis were found to be significantly correlated with maternal thyroid disorders.

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