The Moderating Role of Menopausal Status Between Somatic Symptoms and Development of Psychological Problems Among Pakistani Middle-Aged Women
Objective: The Current study was designed to investigate the moderating role of menopausal status between somatic symptoms and development of psychological symptoms including depression, anxiety and stress among Pakistani middle-aged women.
Methodology: 150 participants (Premenopausal n=57, Perimenopausal n=33 and Postmenopausal n=60) aged ranging from 40 to 60 years, were approached at different public and private hospitals of Peshawar, Islamabad and Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Purposive sampling technique was used based on cross-sectional design. Two instruments Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) Urdu translated version1 and Bradford Somatic Inventory (BSI) translated version2 were used to assess, depression, stress and anxiety and somatic symptoms respectively. The results revealed that Neurological symptoms were significantly predicting depression and stress for perimenopausal women, while, Neurological symptoms were significantly predicting anxiety for postmenopausal women. Chest symptoms were significantly predicting anxiety for peri-menopausal women. Fatigue symptoms were significantly predicting depression for premenopausal women while it was also significantly predicting stress for postmenopausal women.
Results further elaborated that panic symptoms were significantly predicting anxiety and depression for postmenopausal women.
Conclusion: Current study results would be a reference in the clinical setting to overcome psychological and physical problems of women with reference to their relevant menopausal status.